Symbiotic Relationships of Fungi (Lichens and Mycorrhizae)

Symbioses are the type of intimate associations which involves two or more species. Fungi have numerous symbioses involving many eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Symbioses are categorized according to the relative benefit or harm that the partners experience as a consequence of the interactions i.e. Parasitism or mutualism in the association. The categories given above are useful for conceptualizing the diversity of symbioses, but they oversimplify the nature of the interactions, especially mutualisms. Presently many ecologists and evolutionary biologists regard mutualisms and other symbioses as reciprocal parasitism.

Lichen - the appearance of lichens is plant-like which hides their true identity. It is not a single organism, but the result is mutualistic symbiosis between an alga or cyanobacteria and a fungus. Sometimes lichens are formed with three or more partners. The body of lichens consists of filaments (hyphae) of fungi, which surrounds the cells of blue-green cyanobacteria and/or green algae. The fungus lichen provides its partner a benefit by giving protection and in return it gains nutrients. Lichens can grow in a wide range of shapes and is usually determined according to the organization of the fungal filaments. The fungus part of lichen benefits from the algae or cyanobacteria as they produce food by photosynthesis. It grows in a wide range of substrates and habitats. Lichens classifications done based on the fungal component present in it. Its species are given the same binomial name according to the fungus species. Some lichens also have antibiotic properties and some of the acids produced by lichens are utilized in drugs that can be more effective than penicillin.

Mycorrhizae – this association is between fungi and plant roots, where the fungi derive photosynthetic sugars from the plants, and they assist the plant by facilitating the uptake of mineral nutrients and water. Approximately 70-80% of all plants have mycorrhizae. There are two major forms of mycorrhizae.

  • Ectomycorrhizae are formed primarily by basidiomycetes (about 5000 species), and also a few ascomycetes. A sheath of hyphae called a mantle envelops the plant root and hyphae penetrate into the cortex. These symbioses involve mostly forest trees, including oaks, birches, willows, pines, dipterocarps, and eucalypts. Many choice edible fungi are ectomycorrhizal.  
  • Arbuscular mycorrhizae are formed by zygomycetes called glomales (150 species). Although there are relatively few known species of glomales, these symbioses are extremely widespread, involving roughly 70% of plants, including many herbaceous plants. Here the fungal hyphae penetrate into the cells of the root cortex, where they produce characteristic branched structures called arbuscules.

  • Mutualist dynamics
  • Cyanolichens
  • Occurrence of mycorrhizal associations
  • Types of mycorrhizas

Related Conference of Symbiotic Relationships of Fungi (Lichens and Mycorrhizae)

May 29-31, 2017

International Conference On Microbial Engineering

Beijing, China
27,28-July-2017

11th World Congress on Virology

Vancouver, Canada
July 31-Aug 02, 2017

The Virology Congress

Melbourne, Australia
(10 Plenary Forums 3 days 1 Event)
August 28-30, 2017

2nd International Conference and Expo on Water Microbiology & Novel Technologies

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
August 31-September 1, 2017

6th International Conference on Microbial Physiology and Genomics

Brussels, Belgium
Aug 31- Sep 1, 2017

International Conference on Chronic Diseases

Brussels, Belgium
(8 Plenary Forums 2 days 1 Event) September 13-14, 2017

2nd International Conference on Infectious Diseases & Diagnostic Microbiology

Dallas, Texas, USA
September 18-19, 2017

46th World Congress on Microbiology

Dublin, Ireland
September 18-20, 2017

International Conference on Microbial Ecology & Eco Systems

Toronto, Ontario, Canada
(10 Plenary Forums 3 days 1 event)
Sep 18-19, 2017

2ndInternational Conference on Medical Parasitology

Zurich, Switzerland
(10 Plenary Forums 2 Days 1 Event)
September 18-19, 2017

International Conference and Expo on Medical Virology & Infectious Diseases

Houston, Texas, USA
(10 Plenary Forums 3 Days 1 Event)
September 18-20 , 2017

6th International conference on Environmental Microbiology & Soil Microbiology

Toronto, Canada
September 18-20, 2017

4thGlobal Applied Microbiology Summit

San Antonio,Texas, USA
(8 Plenary Forums 2 days 1 Event)
September 25-26, 2017

2nd International Conference on Mycology & Mushrooms

Chicago, Illinois, USA
(8 Plenary forums, 2 days, 1 event)
September 25-26, 2017

7th Annual Congress on Clinical Microbiology

Chicago, Illinois, USA
October 02-03, 2017

3rd International Congress on Microbiology

Atlanta, Georgia, USA
(10 Plenary Forums 3 days 1 Event)
October 2-4, 2017

2ndGlobal Medical Microbiology Summit & Expo

Las Vegas, USA
(10 Plenary Forums 3 Days 1 Event )
October 02-04, 2017

International Congress on Nosocomial and Healthcare Associated Infections

Las Vegas,Nevada,USA
October 16-17, 2017

12th World Congress on Virology

Baltimore, Maryland, USA
October 16-18, 2017

Annual Meeting on Viral Outbreaks and Epidemiology

Baltimore, USA
(10 Plenary Forums 3 days 1 Event)
October 16-18, 2017

Annual Conference on Microbes and Beneficial Microbes

Baltimore, Maryland, USA
March 13-14, 2017

9th International Virology Congress and Expo

London, UK
October 26-28, 2017

8th Clinical Microbiology Conference

Paris, France
(9 Plenary forums, 3 days, 1 event) Oct 30-Nov 1,

4th World Microbiologists Annual Conference

San Antonio, USA
November 06-08, 2017

Microbiology- 2017 (CME & CPD Accredited)

Valencia, Spain
(10 Plenary Forums 2 days 1 Event)
November 13-14, 2017

2nd International Congress on Venereal Diseases

Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
November 16-17, 2017

Annual Congress on Fungal Infections, Diseases & Treatment

Atlanta, Georgia, USA
November 16-17, 2017

Annual Congress on Mycology

Atlanta, Georgia, USA
November 16-18 2017

Global Experts Meeting on Microbiology

Dubai, UAE
November 29-December 01, 2017

4th World Congress and Expo on Applied Microbiology

Madrid, Spain
04-05 December, 2017

Annual Summit on Clinical Microbiology

Dallas, Texas, USA
December 4-6, 2017

10th International Congress on Clinical Virology

Dubai, UAE
{10 Plenary Forums, 3 Days, 1 Event}
October 16-18, 2017

6th Annual Conference on Microbiology

Baltimore, USA
February 22-23, 2018

8th Global Summit on Microbiology & Infectious Diseases

Paris, France

Symbiotic Relationships of Fungi (Lichens and Mycorrhizae) Conference Speakers

Recommended Sessions

Related Journals

Are you interested in