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2nd International Conference on
Mycology 2017 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Mycology 2017
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Medical mycology is the study of fungal infections. In immune-compromised hosts systemic fungal infections are usually seen. Systemic fungal infections lead to pulmonary infections. Fungal infections are usually seen on skin, nails, and hair. Common fungal infections are intertrigo, thrush, and pityriasis versicolor, athlete’s foot, nail infections, ring worm of the body, ring worm of the groin.
- Track 1-1Fungal pathogens
- Track 1-2Fungal infections
- Track 1-3Fungi associated with human or animal disease
- Track 1-4Epidemiology and public health mycology
- Track 1-5Pharmacology and antifungal susceptibilities
- Track 1-6Vaccinology for prevention of fungal infections
- Track 1-7Molecular biology of pathogenic fungi
The mushroom is a spore-bearing, fleshy fruiting body of a fungus, which grows above ground on soil or on organic food source. The most important microscopic feature for identification of mushrooms is the spores. Their colour, shape, size, attachment, and its reaction to chemical tests often can be the crux of identification. Most are basidiomycetes and gilled. Their spores, called basidiospores, are produced on the gills and fall in a fine rain of powder from under the caps as a result. Mushrooms are the fruit bodies of members of the order agaricales, whose type genus is agaricus and type species is the field mushroom, agaricus campestris. However, in modern molecularly defined classifications, not all members of the order agaricales produce mushroom fruit bodies, and many other gilled fungi, collectively called mushrooms, occur in other orders of the class agaricomycetes. A mushroom develops from a nodule, or pinhead, less than two millimetres in diameter, called a primordium, which is typically found on or near the surface of the substrate. It is formed within the mycelium, the mass of threadlike hyphae that make up the fungus. The primordium enlarges into a roundish structure of interwoven hyphae roughly resembling an egg, called a "button". Many species of mushrooms seemingly appear overnight, growing or expanding rapidly. In reality all species of mushrooms take several days to form primordial mushroom fruit bodies, though they do expand rapidly by the absorption of fluids. There are many number of mushroom species are favoured for eating by mushroom hunters. But some species have poisonous effects; although some resemble few edible species, consuming them could be hazardous. Like amanita, are the most toxic mushrooms known at present having mycotoxins. Within the main body of mushrooms, in the agaricales, are common fungi like fairy-ring mushroom, shiitake, enoki, oyster mushrooms, fly agarics and other amanitas, magic mushrooms. An atypical mushroom is the lobster mushroom, which is a deformed, by the mycoparasitic ascomycete hypomyces lactifluorum. Some are having pores underneath, others have spines. Thus, the term is more one of the common application used for macroscopic fungal fruiting bodies than one having precise taxonomic meaning. Till now approximately 14,000 species of mushrooms are described.
- Track 2-1Identification
- Track 2-2Classification
- Track 2-3Etymology
- Track 2-4Morphology
- Track 2-5Edible and toxic mushrooms
- Track 2-6Medicinal mushrooms
- Track 2-7Psychoactive mushrooms
- Track 2-8Mushroom production technology
Fungal biofilms are a growing clinical problem related with significant rates of mortality. Candida albicans is the most notorious of all fungal biofilm formers. However, non-Candida species, yeasts such as Cryptococcus neoformans, and filamentous moulds such as Aspergillus fumigatus, have been shown to be implicated in biofilm-associated infections. Fungal biofilms have distinct developmental phases, including adhesion, colonisation, maturation and dispersal, which are governed by complex molecular events. Recalcitrance to antifungal therapy remains the greatest threat to patients with fungal biofilms. This analysis is to discuss our current understanding of the basic biology and clinical implications associated with fungal biofilms.
- Topical antifungals – applied directly to the skin, hair or nails
- Oral antifungals – which are swallowed in capsule, pill or liquid form
- Intravenous antifungals – which are injected into your bloodstream
- Intravaginal antifungal pessaries – small, soft tablets inserted into the vagina to treat conditions such as vaginal thrush.
Most industrial processes used fungal cells for the bulk manufacturing of organic acids, proteins, enzymes, secondary metabolites and active pharmaceutical ingredients in white and red biotechnology. Fungi are also significantly impacting on global food security, damaging global crop production, causing disease in domesticated animals, and spoiling an estimated 10 % of harvested crops. A number of challenges now need to be addressed to improve our strategies to control fungal pathogenicity and to optimise the use of fungi as sources for novel compounds. Some of these products are produced commercially while others are potentially valuable in biotechnology. The secondary metabolites of fungi have extreme importance to health and nutrition and have tremendous economic impact. In addition to the multiple reaction sequences of fermentations, fungi are extremely useful in carrying out biotransformation processes. These are becoming essential to the fine-chemical industry in the production of single-isomer intermediates. rDNA technology, which includes yeasts and other fungi as hosts, has markedly increased markets for microbial enzymes. Molecular manipulations have been added to mutational techniques as a means of increasing yields of microbial processes and in the discovery of new drugs. Nowadays, fungal biology is a major contributor in global industry. Still, the finest is yet to come as genomes of new additional species have located and sequenced at some level (cDNA, complete genomes, and expressed sequence tags) and gene and protein arrays will become available.
- Track 5-1Marine mycotechnology
- Track 5-2Fungal metabolites
- Track 5-3Genetic engineering of filamentous fungi
- Track 5-4Fungal leaching
- Track 5-5Fungal use in control of pests and pathogens
- Track 5-6Yeast and synthetic biology
Fungi are eukaryotic organisms which cannot produce their own energy and depend on enzymatic processes for metabolic activity to absorb nutrition. Its kingdom encompasses tremendous biological diversity, with members covering a wide range of lifestyles, forms, habitats, and sizes. Fungi includes thousands of lineages, from the mushroom forming fungi, to yeasts, rusts, smuts and moulds and have most indispensable ecological roles in decomposition processes, but are also involved in important symbiotic associations and are known to include noteworthy parasites. Recent estimates point to 1.5 million fungal species on the planet of which only ~7% have been described. Furthermore, fungi assemble in very species-rich communities, making the full documentation of fungal diversity in targeted sites a particularly challenging task. Advances in molecular techniques have formed the base for a boost in studies concerning fungal diversity, and the fast development of next generation sequencing technologies promises further progress towards a more thorough understanding of fungal diversity and function. The current limited knowledge of fungal diversity and biology complicates an assessment of the conservation status of fungal species and has hindered the development of conservation tools and efforts. There have been, however, recent concerted efforts to bring fungi to conservation debates, such as the newly created society for the conservation of fungi.
- Track 6-1Fungal classification
- Track 6-2Biodiversity, and systematic
- Track 6-3Marine fungi
- Track 6-4Molecular phylogeny
- Track 6-5The genomic revolution
Pathogenic fungi cause disease in humans and in other organisms, which is called as fungal pathogenesis. This is particularly true of fungal pathogenesis that there is no single factor that causes or permits these organisms to be agents of diseases that range from superficial to invasive diseases in plant, animal, and human. Fungal pathogens can be divided into two general classes’ primary pathogens and opportunistic pathogens. The basic mechanism of fungal pathogenicity is its ability to adapt to the tissue environment and to withstand the lytic activity of the host's cellular defences. In general, the development of human mycoses is related primarily to the immunological status of the host and environmental exposure, rather than to the infecting organism. A small number of fungi have the ability to cause infections in normal healthy humans by (1) having a unique enzymatic capacity, (2) exhibiting thermal dimorphism and (3) by having an ability to block the cell-mediated immune defences of the host. There are then many "opportunistic" fungi which cause infections almost exclusively in debilitated patients whose normal defence mechanisms are impaired. The organisms involved are cosmopolitan fungi which have a very low inherent virulence. Currently, there has been a dramatic increase in fungal infections of this type, in particular candidiasis, cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, and zygomycosis. More recently described mycoses of this category include hyalohyphomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis. Altogether, some 200 "human pathogens" have been recognized from among an estimated 1.5 million species of fungi.
The superficial mycoses -these are superficial cosmetic fungal infections of the skin or hair shaft. No living tissue is invaded and there is no cellular response from the host. Essentially no pathological changes are elicited.
Dermatophytosis - ringworm or tinea - ringworm of scalp, glabrous skin, and nails caused by a closely related group of fungi known as dermatophytes which have the ability to utilize keratin as a nutrient source, i.e. they have a unique enzymatic capacity - keratinase.
There are 3 types of dermatophyrosis are there
Geophilic dermatophytosis normally inhabits the soil.
Zoophilic dermatophytes are primarily parasitic on animals. Infections may be transmitted to man. Anthropophilic dermatophytes are primarily parasitic on man and have only rarely been known to infect animals.
The subcutaneous mycoses - these are chronic, localized infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue following the traumatic implantation of the aetiologic agent.
Examples- sporotrichosis, chromoblastomycosis, mycetoma.
Infectious disease mycology - these are fungal infections of the body caused by dimorphic fungal pathogens which can overcome the physiological and cellular defences of the normal human host by changing their morphological form.
- Track 7-1Dermatophytosis
- Track 7-2Chromoblastomycosis
- Track 7-3Sporotrichosis
- Track 7-4Phaeohyphomycosis
- Track 7-5Hyalohyphomycosis
- Track 7-6Aspergillosis
- Track 7-7Zygomycosis (mucormycosis)
- Track 7-8Cryptococcosis
- Track 7-9Candidiasis
- Track 7-10Coccidioidomycosis
- Track 7-11Histoplasmosis
- Track 7-12Mycetoma
Edible mushrooms are the fleshy fruit bodies of several species of macro-fungi. They can appear either below ground or above ground where they may be picked by hand. Edibility may be defined by criteria that include absence of poisonous effects on humans and desirable taste and aroma. Mushrooms play extremely important roles in the ecosystem, and some are famously delicious. Some are also famously deadly. In recent years has focused on various immunological and anti-cancer properties of certain mushrooms, they also offer other potentially important health benefits, including antioxidants, anti-hypertensive and cholesterol-lowering properties, liver protection, as well as anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-viral and anti-microbial properties. These properties have attracted the interest of many pharmaceutical companies, which are viewing the medicinal mushroom as a rich source of innovative biomedical molecules. Some important and popular medicinal mushroom varieties: Coriolus versicolor (Turkey Tails), Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi), Agaricus blazei (common name Himematsutake), Polyporus umbellatus (common name Zhu Ling), Hericium erinaceus (Lion’s Mane). Medicinal mushrooms like maitake, shiitake, reishi, oyster and chaga mushrooms can boost health when cooked and eaten or taken as a supplement. We may not think of mushrooms as herbs, many of the world’s more than 38,000 species of mushrooms have medicinal uses. For their own protection, fungi have developed an arsenal of medicinal compounds with antibacterial and antiviral properties. The first antibiotic, penicillin, was discovered in the Penicillin rubens mold. Ganomycin, a powerful modern antibiotic, comes from Reishi mushrooms. Mushrooms contain disease-busting polysaccharides, glycoproteins, ergosterols, triterpenoids, and immune-boosting chemicals. Agarikon mushrooms have antiviral properties against H1N1 swine flu and H5N1 bird flu. Trametes versicolor, a type of turkey tail mushroom containing the protein-bound polysaccharide extracts PSK and PSP, can increase natural killer cell activity and increase T helper lymphocytes useful in complementary treatment of cancer. They can also be used to bolster a declining immune system during aging.
- Track 8-1Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum)
- Track 8-2Mitake (Grifola frondosa)
- Track 8-3Agarikon (Laricifomes officinalis)
- Track 8-4Coliolus (Trametes versicolor)
- Track 8-5Cancer-fighting ingredients (polysaccharides, linoleic acid)
- Track 8-6Selenium (an important antioxidant)
- Track 8-7Protein
- Track 8-8Shitake (Lentinula edodes)
Bacterial and fungal interactions can form a range of physical associations that depend on various modes of molecular communication for their development and functioning. Physical complexes between bacteria and fungi are found in many distinct environments, such as the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients, the human oral cavity, the production of foods such as cheese, wine, tempeh, and sourdough and agricultural and forest environments. The combination of physical associations and molecular interactions between bacteria and fungi can result in a variety of different outcomes for each partner. In turn, these changes may affect the influence of the bacterial-fungal complex. Consequences of bacterial-fungal interactions have profound consequences for both organisms and changes in the bacterial and fungal partners' physiology, life cycles, and survival. Applications of BIFs found in various biological fields i.e. Food processing, fermentation and brewing, cheese ripening, bioremediation of pollutants, natural product discovery and synthetic biology. Mixed bacterial-fungal communities play a key role in determining the taste, quality, and safety of a wide range of foods, like wine production, cheese manufacture involves complex microbial ecosystems where BIFs play a central role.
- Track 9-1Physical complexes between bacteria and fungi
- Track 9-2Molecular interactions
- Track 9-3Consequences of bacterial-fungal interactions
- Track 9-4Applications of bacterial-fungal interactions
- Track 9-5Effects on environment, food, and medicine
- Track 9-6Medically important bacterial-fungal interactions
- Track 9-7Pathogens to mutualistic endosymbiosis
Mycotoxins are the secondary metabolites that are produced by filamentous fungi. It is capable of causing disease and death in humans and other animals. Because of their pharmacological activity, some mycotoxins or mycotoxin derivatives have found use as antibiotics, growth promotants, and other kinds of drugs; still others have been implicated as chemical warfare agents. This review focuses on the most important ones associated with human and veterinary diseases, including aflatoxin, citrinin, ergot akaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin a, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone.
Mycoses are the best-known diseases of fungal etiology, but toxic secondary metabolites produced by saprophytic species are also an important health hazard. The term mycotoxin is an artificial rubric used to describe pharmacologically active mold metabolites characterized by vertebrate toxicity. Mycotoxins generally enter the body via ingestion of contaminated foods, but inhalation of toxigenic spores and direct dermal contact are also important routes.
- Track 10-1Mycoses and mycotoxicoses
- Track 10-2Trichothecenes
- Track 10-3Patulin
- Track 10-4Ochratoxin
- Track 10-5Fumonisins
- Track 10-6Ergot alkaloids
- Track 10-7Citrinin
- Track 10-8Aflatoxins
- Track 10-9Toxicology and human health
- Track 10-10Definitions, etymology, and general principles
- Track 10-11Zearalenone
Filamentous fungi are used by industry for manufacture of a large variety of useful products, all for the benefit of humankind. The products include metabolites, enzymes and food. Fungal cells can grow at different environmental conditions and environmental diversity. The chemical and physical conditions used for fungal propagation which depends up on fungal genetics and biology will have a great impact on the capability of these cells to accumulate the desired product(s). Fungi have high importance in the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries due to the diverse bioactive metabolites produced by these organisms. Since the treatment of bacterial infections using partially purified penicillin century ago, bioactive fungal metabolites have strongly influenced the development of the modern pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries. Mevinolin, cyclosporine A, β-lactam antibiotics, pneumocandins, ergotamine, strobilurins, and mycophenolic acid are examples of revolutionary pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals that have a fungal origin In spite of the success of bioactive fungal metabolites as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, fungi remain an essentially untapped source of medicines because only a small fraction of the vast fungal kingdom has been explored for bioactive metabolite production. The potential for discovering new bioactive metabolites from fungi is unlimited. The industrial discovery of bioactive fungal metabolites is a complex, integrated, but somewhat empirical process. However, recent advances in the genetics of microbial secondary metabolite biosynthesis, genomics, and metabolic engineering will play an ever-increasing role in facilitating fungal bioactive metabolites discovery.
- Track 11-1Food and Beverages Industry
- Track 11-2Baking Industry
- Track 11-3Mycoprotein – Quorn
- Track 11-4Antibiotics – Penicillin
- Track 11-5Immuno-suppressive
- Track 11-6Vitamins
- Track 11-7Mycodiesel
- Track 11-8Fungi in waste treatment
Fungi occur in all type of environment on earth and plays vital roles in most ecosystems. These are the major decomposers along with bacteria in most terrestrial and some aquatic ecosystems, and therefore play a critical role in biogeochemical cycles and in many food webs play an essential role in nutrient cycling by degrading organic matters to inorganic molecules, which can then re-enter to different anabolic metabolic pathways in plants and other organisms. They cause many diseases in plants and animals, but they also have established mutualistic symbioses with a wide range of organisms: like cyanobacteria and green algae (in lichens), bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms (in mycorrhizas), and coleopteran, dipteran, homopteran, hymenopteran and isopteran insects. As parasites or pathogens they are well equipped to penetrate host organisms and to liberate spores that will effectively transmit them from one host to the next. These opportunistic heterotrophs have evolved hyphae to penetrate solid substrates, and spores for long‐range dispersal and many species produce toxic compounds called as mycotoxins, and these interactions can be mutualistic or antagonistic in nature, or damage to the host.
- Track 12-1Population dynamics, adaptation and evolution
- Track 12-2Role in ecosystem functioning
- Track 12-3Nutrient cycling, decomposition and carbon allocation
- Track 12-4Eco-physiology
- Track 12-5Intra- and inter-specific mycelial interactions
- Track 12-6Fungus-plant (pathogens, mycorrhizas, lichens, endophytes)
- Track 12-7Fungus-invertebrate and fungus-microbe interaction
- Track 12-8Genomics and (evolutionary) genetics
- Track 12-9Bioremediation and biodegradation
Symbioses are the type of intimate associations which involves two or more species. Fungi have numerous symbioses involving many eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Symbioses are categorized according to the relative benefit or harm that the partners experience as a consequence of the interactions i.e. Parasitism or mutualism in the association. The categories given above are useful for conceptualizing the diversity of symbioses, but they oversimplify the nature of the interactions, especially mutualisms. Presently many ecologists and evolutionary biologists regard mutualisms and other symbioses as reciprocal parasitism.
Lichen - the appearance of lichens is plant-like which hides their true identity. It is not a single organism, but the result is mutualistic symbiosis between an alga or cyanobacteria and a fungus. Sometimes lichens are formed with three or more partners. The body of lichens consists of filaments (hyphae) of fungi, which surrounds the cells of blue-green cyanobacteria and/or green algae. The fungus lichen provides its partner a benefit by giving protection and in return it gains nutrients. Lichens can grow in a wide range of shapes and is usually determined according to the organization of the fungal filaments. The fungus part of lichen benefits from the algae or cyanobacteria as they produce food by photosynthesis. It grows in a wide range of substrates and habitats. Lichens classifications done based on the fungal component present in it. Its species are given the same binomial name according to the fungus species. Some lichens also have antibiotic properties and some of the acids produced by lichens are utilized in drugs that can be more effective than penicillin.
Mycorrhizae – this association is between fungi and plant roots, where the fungi derive photosynthetic sugars from the plants, and they assist the plant by facilitating the uptake of mineral nutrients and water. Approximately 70-80% of all plants have mycorrhizae. There are two major forms of mycorrhizae.
- Ectomycorrhizae are formed primarily by basidiomycetes (about 5000 species), and also a few ascomycetes. A sheath of hyphae called a mantle envelops the plant root and hyphae penetrate into the cortex. These symbioses involve mostly forest trees, including oaks, birches, willows, pines, dipterocarps, and eucalypts. Many choice edible fungi are ectomycorrhizal.
- Arbuscular mycorrhizae are formed by zygomycetes called glomales (150 species). Although there are relatively few known species of glomales, these symbioses are extremely widespread, involving roughly 70% of plants, including many herbaceous plants. Here the fungal hyphae penetrate into the cells of the root cortex, where they produce characteristic branched structures called arbuscules.
- Track 13-1Mutualist dynamics
- Track 13-2Cyanolichens
- Track 13-3Occurrence of mycorrhizal associations
- Track 13-4Types of mycorrhizas
The presence of fungi in food has been both advantage and problems to food stores. Fungi can spoil large quantities of food and produce dangerous toxins that threaten human health; however, fungal spoilage in certain foods can produce a unique, highly prized food source and there are some very effective fungal derived medicines. A thorough understanding of the vast body of knowledge relating to food mycology requires an inclusive volume that covers both the beneficial and detrimental roles of fungi in our food supply. These include food groups such as bakery products, dairy products, beverages (e.g. fruit juices), dried fruits and nuts, and confectionary. Fungi can also present health risks by the production of specific toxic agents called mycotoxins, which are often poorly understood, but are being increasingly recognised as agents of both acute and chronic toxicity in humans and animals. This creates an opportunity in research towards the fungi and yeasts, and the problems they can cause in foods, in terms of spoilage and health effects. It will present a balanced view of the importance of these agents in the context of the modern food industry.
- Track 14-1The impact of Climate changes on Food security and Food safety
- Track 14-2Mycotoxin production in foods
- Track 14-3Predictive models for fungal growth
- Track 14-4Techniques for detection and eradication of fungi including real-time PCR
- Track 14-5Food ecology and the association of certain fungal species with specific food products
- Track 14-6Standardise methods for isolation, enumeration and identification of fungi in foods
A key ingredient in successful entrepreneurship is self-knowledge. (Mycology-2016) aims to bring together all existing and budding bio entrepreneurs to share experiences and present new innovations and challenges in microbiological community. Each year, over a million companies are started in the world with about 5–10 of them classified as high technology companies. Turning ideas into business ventures is tricky and the opportunity-recognition step is critical in new venture creation. This gestalt in the entrepreneur's perception of the relationship between the invention and final product is refined into a business model that describes how the venture will make money or provide an appropriate return to the potential investors. Biological science is complex and rapidly changing and requires a specialized knowledge to understand the value of the innovation and its competitive position in the industry. Although life scientists are typically the founders of biotech companies, studies have shown that the most successful high tech startups are founded by a team of two to three individuals with mixed backgrounds, substantial industry experience and a very clear market and product focus at founding. This three day community-wide conference will be a highly interactive forum that will bring experts in areas ranging from structural microbiology to signaling pathways to novel therapeutic approaches to the scientific hub. In addition to our outstanding speakers, we will also showcase short talks and poster presentations from submitted abstracts.The speakers will discuss how microbes can be engineered to report using computational inputs from their local environment. This session will include combined efforts of cutting edge synthetic biology research to highlight the current state, challenges and future of engineered microbial communities.